Git is one of the most popular versions control system. You can manage your software code by monitoring changes, reverting back to previous versions of your code or create new branches for alternative code that you will be able to merge with your main code later on. This guide will help you install Git on Ubuntu 14.04.
What you’ll need
Before you begin this guide you’ll need the following:
- Access to Ubuntu 14.04 terminal
Table of Contents
Step 1 — Installing Git on Ubuntu
Option 1 – Installing Git With Apt
Ubuntu 14.04 already contains Git in default repositories. You can easily install it using the apt package manager. Firstly update it by running the following command:
sudo apt-get update
Note that version in the repositories might not be the newest one, you can check available versions with:
apt-cache policy git
An example output would be:
git: Installed: (none) Candidate: 1:1.9.1-1ubuntu0.3 Version table: 1:1.9.1-1ubuntu0.3 0 500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates/main amd64 Packages 500 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security/main amd64 Packages 1:1.9.1-1 0 500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/main amd64 Packages
There are 2 available versions – 1:1.9.1-1ubuntu0.3 0 and 1:1.9.1-1 0 . Candidate version shows which version would be installed. To install git run:
sudo apt-get install git
Running this command will install git on your system.
Option 2 – Installing Git from GitHub
If you need the most recent version of git then you can install it from GitHub. Before you install git you need additional packages for it:
sudo apt-get install libcurl4-gnutls-dev libexpat1-dev gettext libz-dev libssl-dev
Now visit this link and download the version you want to install.
In our example, we are going to use v2.11.0 version so it can be extracted using:
tar -zxf v2.11.0.tar.gz
However, you would need to use filename that you have downloaded instead of v2.11.0.tar.gz. Enter extracted directory:
Now install git locally by running:
make prefix=/usr/local all make prefix=/usr/local install
Step 2 — Configuring Git
Once you have successfully installed Git you will need to configure it. Set your username instead of user_name in the following command:
git config --global user.name "user_name"
Now enter your email address instead of firstname.lastname@example.org.
git config --global user.email "email@example.com"
Step 3 – List of Basic Git Commands
Here is a list of useful Git commands to help you get started with Git.
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|git clone ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/repo.git||Clone an existing repository|
|git init||Create a new local repository|
|Working with Local Changes|
|git status||Changed files in working directory|
|git diff||Changes to tracked files|
|git add .||Add all changes to your next commit|
|git add -p||Add some changes in to your next commit|
|git commit -a||Commit all local changes in tracked files|
|git commit||Commit previously staged changes|
|git commit -amend||Change the last commit|
|Checking Commit History|
|git log||Show all commits|
|git log -p||Show changes over time for specific|
|git blame||See who changed what and when in|
|Creating Branches and Tags|
|git branch -av||See all existing branches|
|git checkout||Switch to branch|
|git branch||Create a new branch based on your current branch|
|git checkout — track <remote/branch>||Create a new branch based on remote branch|
|git branch -d||Delete a local branch|
|git tag||Mark your current commit with a tag|
|Updating and Publishing|
|git remote -v||List all currently configured remotes|
|git remote show||Show information about a remote|
|git remote add||Add new remote repository|
|git fetch||Download all changes from|
|git pull branch||Download all changes from and merge into HEAD|
|git push||Push changes from local to remote|
|git branch -dr <remote/branch>||Delete a branch on the remote|
|git push — tags||Publish your tags|
|Merging and Rebasing|
|git merge||Merge into current HEAD|
|git rebase||Rebase current HEAD onto|
|git rebase — abort||Abort a rebase|
|git rebase — continue||Continue a rebase after resolving conflicts|
|git reset — hard HEAD||Discard all local changes in your working directory|
|git checkout HEAD||Discard all local changes in a specific file|
|git revert||Revert a specific commit|
|git reset — hard||Reset your HEAD to a previous commit by discarding all changes since then|
|git reset||Reset your HEAD to a previous commit but preserve all unstaged changes|
|git reset — keep||Reset your HEAD to a previous commit and preserve uncommitted local changes|
To see more git commands use:
Using this tutorial you have learned how to install Git on Ubuntu 14.04. You have also learned basic Git configuration and commands. You can now manage your code more effectively by creating branches, reverting changes and keeping track of your code.